The king and the church have always been the symbols of the Middle Ages, the symbols of power. The king sent his army to fight in order to conquer new territories, and to increase his countrys influence upon the others. But to me, the real symbols of the poques through time are always the ones who immortalize the reality of their day to day life, the painters and the writers.
The borders have not survived through time, but the works of these great creators of art, did. Politics have changed, the entire world has changed, but the works of art are eternal. Lope de Vega et Velzquez constituent sans aucune doute uns des plus reprsentatifs personnages de cette poque, car ils ont su raliser une image si raliste de leur temps, en utilisant les verses et la peinture. Des tableaux tr s impressionnants parmi loeuvre de Velzquez comme Las Meninas et Les lances constituent une vive et vraie image de lEspagne de la monarchie autrichienne, de m,me que les verses de Lope qui parlent des v nements remarquables qui ont marqu la vie quotidienne de lEspagne du Si cle dOr.
Lope de Vega a t un personnage vraiment complet, car il a crit et a lutt, comme son voisin, Cervantes, pour lidal dune Espagne grandiose. Le premier Si cle dOr de lhistoire de lEspagne reprsente videmment pour celle-ci une priode importante, car ctait la quelle a connu une des plus grandes floraisons de sa culture.
Owning a wide landed property, the Glogoveanu family, could join other families with an old and far off origin as boyars, probably before the foundation of the feudal state Walachia. The existence of their estate is proved by a great number of testaments and many others documents in which are specified the frontiers hot rnicii that have remained as a testimony along the time.
This noble family owned properties in four from the five districts of Oltenia: Dolj, Gorj, Mehedin'i and Romana'i. The estate in which they actually dwelled and the centre of theie socioeconomic and political life was Glogova, situated in the north-eastern parts of Oltenia. After the members from this family had established a residence in Craiova, the main city of the province, to the end of the 17th century, they tried to extend their dominions in the districts from the field region, Dolj and Romana'i.
At September 5th the estate was owned by Florica, the daughter of the comis Radu Corl tescu. They sold the estate to lady Elina, the wife of Matei Basarab. At 5th September , the estate was belonging to Florica, the daughter of the comis Radu Corl tescu, and to the pitar Nicola Glogoveanu. In , the pitar Nicola bought back the village with ducats and became again the landowner of the estate.
In , the estate was the property of Matei Glogoveanu. Six years later, Ilinca Strmbeanu appeared as the owner and she would leave the possession to his son Ioan a document from March 6th The serdar Ioni' Glogoveanu sustained that tirbei enclosed, without any right, this estate. The serdar tirbei contested the validity of the document, saying that the village mentioned above had been in the possession of Nicolas sister, Ani'a Rusi'a, who sold it to Constantin Strmbeanul.
Glogoveanu mentioned that this sale wasnt correct. After the measurements were done, was decided that half of the village should be due to Ioni' Glogoveanu, and the other half to the serdar tirbei7. Marin Matei Popescu, Adrian N.
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Beldeanu, op. The boyars from the Glogoveanu family held also, starting with , the estate Boanta. It was mentioned for the first time in a charter emitted at 3rd April , through which, Petru Voievod, gave a half from the property of Bonteni to Neagomir and the other half to Neagoe8. After this date and until , the estate had many owners. The monastery received, along the time, from different rulers, many legal confirmations for these parts of the estate.
At 3rd June , Michael the Brave, accorded to the dreg tor jupn Radu, great clucer, to Preda, great postelnic and to Stroe, great stolnic, the possession over several parts from the village Bonteni, along with vineyards and mills, bought from Staicu, Radu and Stroe for aspri9. After this date, the v taf Necula, owing some debts to Preda, former great ban of Craiova, had to sell some of the villages among which Boanta was too At the end of the 18th century, the serdar Ioni' Glogoveanu was at the law with the serdar tirbei regarding the possession of some villages.
Among them, Boanta counts too. At 2nd September, in the same year, and 22nd, the next year, this piece of land became the property of Nicolae Glogoveanu, in exchange for some debts that Constantin Tabacu owed to him. At 1 st March , Ecaterina Melinescu and his husband Dr ghici Preo'escu sold more stnjeni from this property to Nicolae Glogoveanu: at 18th August 3 stnjeni , at 20th August 6 stnjeni , 30th November 17 stnjeni , at 15th July one Documente privind istoria Romniei, 16th century, B.
XI , p. XXI , p. In the estate was in the property of the freeholders and of the clucer Constandin Glogoveanu. Eight years later, owners of the village had become the aga Constantin Glogoveanu and another two members of the family Melinescu, Constantin and State, and the freeholders Another estate from the possessions of the Glogoveanu family is Valea Muierii.
Before becoming the property of this boyar family, it belonged to the Melinescu family. At 15th July the same Ecaterina Melinescu sold to the same boyar another 5 stajens from the land. At 10th Fiera Melinescu sold to Nicolae 17 stnjeni which she previously bought from Constantin Mndru. Except for the members of the Melinescu family, others dwellers from Valea Muierii, also sold their parts from this estate to the Glogoveanu family.
At 5th January , Constantin, the son of erban and Ni'u, the sons of erban, sold to the boyar Glogoveanu 33 stnjeni. After this date, Ion, the son of Sandu Ureche, sold more stnjeni from the land to these boyars: at 18th December , 8 stnjeni; at 22nd April , 20 stnjeni. The villagers reclaimed that the leaseholder cut wood from their forest and not from the Ecaterina Miclescus forest.
The court designated a surveyor to establish who owned the forest. The trial lasted until and finished with the reconciliation of the parties The possession from R cari became the property of the Glogoveanu family before , as results from the two documents. The first, a petition of the inhabitants of those places in which they declared their discontent regarding the administrator of the estate, Hristodor Ivanovici25, and the second is a contestation of the administrator Hristodor Ivanovici, addressed to the rule of the Dolj district, in which he showed his discontent regarding the way the inhabitants performed their duties In on the property of Constantin Glogoveanu were put in the possession of land socmen 5 with 4 oxen, with 2 oxen and 81 poor peasants , receiving acres and and 32 m 26 pr jini of land.
In , the inhabitants from R cari reclaimed to the authorities that Constantin Glogoveanu, the owner of the estate, took from them, a year before, a third from the land they had received in , asking for justice. In order to solve their request, was constituted a Dinic Ciobotea, Monica C linescu, op. Culegeri, the 3rd series, year V, , nr. IV, , p.
I, , p. Commission of Establishment, which analyzed the documents of both sides and decided that Constantin Glogoveanu should keep this third part of the land At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the owner of the R cari estate, with a surface of arable acres and of a forest, was the same Constantin Glogoveanu The large number of estates demonstrates both their quality as important boyars and the economic role that they played in the Romanian society. Matres sur une immense proprit fonci -re, les boyards Glogoveanu ont pu se rallier aux autres familles avec une ancienne et suprieure origine seigneuriale, devant la constitution de la principaut de la Valachie.
Lexistence de leur proprit fonci -re est demontr par plusieurs testaments, cadastres, rests comme tmoignage tout au long des si -cles. Cette famille seigneuriale a eu des proprits fonci -res dans les districts: Dolj, Gorj, Mehedin'i et Romana'i. Leur proprit dorigine et le lieu daffirmation socio-conomique et politique a t Glogova, situ au nord-ouest dOltnie. Ces proprits fonci -res dmontrent la qualit de grands boyards et le rol conomique jou par les boyards Glogoveanu dans la socit roumaine.
Ibidem, Prefectura jude'ului Dolj, Servicul Administrativ, dos. The War between Russia Turkey that ended through the Peace from Adrianopole , September 2nd- 14th had very important results in the social and economic evolution of the Romanian Principalities. Following this Treaty, the Danube would become an important thoroughfare for goods and products.
The new conditions that followed The Adrianopoles Peace will lead to the revival of some old towns such as: Giurgiu and Br ila, and equally, to the setting up of some new ones: Severin, Alexandria, Calafat, and so on1. Russias wish of counterattacking the influence of Austria to the Lower Danube where sailing has already begun in with an Austrian shi called Franz I2 , together with the necessity of creating a harbor downstream Cazane where there were smooth waters, and ships could spend their winter there led to the appearance of a new town in the Field of Severin3.
This town has been burnt down by the Turks in , August, 6th and has not been rebuilt.
Moreover, it has also been struck by the floods of River Topolni a each spring, for a few years in a row. The inhabitants welcomed the Governor and asked him to displace the entire village on the field of Severin, surrounding the Roman Caster. Realizing the importance of building a town in this area, General Pavel Kiseleff ordered through Order No.
The Magistrate of Cerne i together with local traders Gheorghe Opran and Ion G rd reanu dealt with the performing works. They had the revenues of the estate and fishery near the Danube of Small Valachia at their disposal. Pajur , D.
Court, a School , a Prison, a Church and a Bar. The Board of Administration was forced to put the map of Severin and two plans necessary for the construction of the new town , at the disposal of the Magistrate of Cerne i. All these have been sent in , April 27th by the Department of L untru4. After the analysis of the first plan of the town of Severin made by the State Engineer and sent in , April 27th to the Magistrate of Cerne i and to Engineer Moritz von Ott to be performed, the surface of the newly-born town would have been of square fathoms.
Of these: were destined to squares and streets; were asserted by the local gentry and chapmen as being given to them in ; the rest of square fathoms, represented goods for sale at the price of 4 lei and 50 chinks6.
According to this first plan, the town was designed in front of the foot of the Bridge of Traian, area divided into pieces house lots meant to be offered to the inhabitants of Cerne i7. According to a letter sent by Ion G rd reanu, president of the Magistrate of Cerne i, of the Department of L untru, at the time, Engineer Moritz von Ott was about to arrive in Bucharest in August , with the request of marking the place for building the Inn of the town, the shops and other necessary institutions for the new town8.
In the following period though, some citizens and 40 other people from the local gentry and traders, filed complaints of refusing to move into the new town, asking for some facilities instead. On May, 16th, the Ministry of Interior answered to all these and to the Memorandum written by the Magistrate in support of explaining their complaints: Mastery State does not force anyone to move into the new location, only those who want to will move to the decided location for the new town9. Even if, from various reasons, the citizens refuse to move into the new town, the inhabitants from some villages Banovi a, 'imian and Schela Cladovei have worked together with the State Engineer to measure and divide the estate of Severin for houses, shops, markets and streets.
Following this, the 4. Severin, The Town Hall of Tr. Places in a total surface of square fathoms10 have been sold until , July, 26th.
Then, In September , a great deal of merchants and persons also bought lands for houses and shops. The works will stagnate in the next two years as a result of the political changes. The plan of building the town near the ruins of the Bridge of Traian, over the ruins of Caster Drobeta will be abandoned as well.